Wednesday, November 6, 2013

满洲里 (1)



清朝末期(公元1896年),李鸿章代表清政府去俄罗斯祝贺沙皇的加冕典礼,还有另一任务,就是与沙俄签订一项丧权辱国的《中俄御敌互相援助条约》,简称《中俄密约》,允许俄国在中国的领土上修筑一条东清铁路,让西伯利亚大铁路穿过中国领土,直达海参崴。



由于中国在中日甲午战争中战败,沙俄趁着清政府内忧外患的当儿,实行进一步掠夺中国东北部丰富的资源,加强对东北地区的经济和政治侵略、达到控制远东的目的。藉着要共同防御日本为由,沙俄迫清政府签下条约,从1896年到1903年,以哈尔滨为中心,铁路往西延伸至满洲里,东至绥芬河,南至大连。



最初的满洲里地区,被蒙古牧民叫做“霍勒金布拉格”,蒙语的意思是“旺盛的泉水”,因为这里有一个四季喷涌不止的泉眼。1902年,俄国人把刚建好的东清铁路进入满洲地域的第一个车站,取名Manczuria,后人顺带把“满洲里”这个车站名也作为地名了。




北面紧接俄罗斯,西连蒙古国,拥有百年历史的满洲里,今天已经成为中国最大的沿边陆路口岸,为中国环渤海港口通往俄罗斯、和那些独立出来的吉吉坦坦国家,以及欧洲的最便捷、最经济、最重要的陆海连运大通道。单是中俄贸易的陆路运输,这个口岸城市就担当着60%以上的任务。




1994年8月,中俄两国勘察边界结束时,定在中俄边境线上的第41号界碑。据说在93年以前,这个位置是中俄两国贸易往来的客货混用通道。随着双方贸易的发展,通货量不断增加,1993年新建了公路口岸,满洲里国门与俄罗斯国门之间,就有了第41号界碑。




上世纪的二、三十年代,满洲里是中国共产党与共产国际的红色通道。四十年代,苏联红军从这里打响了欧洲战场支援太平洋战场的第一枪;中国在解放战争和抗美援朝战争时期,满洲里口岸曾把大批苏联军援物资运往前线。五十年代,中国遭受帝国主义国家的海上封锁,作为共和国主要外贸通道的满洲里,对支持全国的经济建设上,作了很大的供献。





23 comments:

  1. 浓浓的政治氛围, 感觉很严肃的地方!

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    1. 这里的居民和俄罗斯人,都只注重搞经济,推广旅游业,以前的历史,只是用来吸引游客的卖点而已啦!哈哈哈~~~~

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  2. 在中国很难看到那么蓝的天空的哦!

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    1. 好像云南、香格里拉、九寨沟、西藏、新疆、东北地区,还有清澈蓝天白云存在滴!

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  3. Replies
    1. 尼到地方系唔俾人行出行入架,净系火车载货来来去去甘咯!

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  4. “全世界无产者联合起来”是什么意思? 我尤其对“无产”二字感好奇。

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    1. 无产阶级(Proletarius)就是工人阶级,在资本主义社会,无产者就是靠出卖劳动力为生、被雇佣的劳动者阶级;而在社会主义社会,工人阶级已经摆脱了被剥削、被压迫的地位,成为掌握国家政权的领导阶级。
      在所有文明国家里,大资本家几乎独占了一切生活资料和生产这些生活资料所必须的原料和工具(好像:机器、工厂);而无产阶级为了换得维持生存所必须的生活资料,不得不把自己的劳动出卖给资产者。

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    2. The common capitalist mantra that “anyone can be rich if they work hard enough” is a fallacy. There’s only so much room at the top. In order to make money, first you have to take it from someone else. This can be done through selling things, taxation or any other means. But this means that the rich cannot exist without the poor. Any way you look at it, there’s never going to be equality under capitalism.

      In a society where resources are not evenly distributed, there is always going to be the wealthy who have an excess of resources. While occasionally these resources are given to the poor, often this excess is wasted. Millions of dollars worth of food is wasted by those who have more than they need, while there are many others who desperately need it.

      Of course, if some have an excess of the resources in society, there are others who do not have enough. In Third World countries, many are starving because they cannot afford to feed themselves, while those in Western countries fatten themselves with an excess of food, and waste the rest of it. There is enough food in the world to feed the entire world population.

      Often companies will cut corners in health and safety restrictions, because it costs them less to pay off the families of those who die in industrial accidents. Often staff are not properly trained in certain areas, or provisions have not been put in place to protect them from certain risks. This has often resulted in injuries and sometimes death.

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    3. While every individual has a single vote in a democracy, in a capitalist system, they have very little say in the actions of government. Greater influences on government than ideology or public opinion are the wealthy. Governments will listen to big business and banks because they fund their election campaigns. They will listen to big newspaper barons because they know that they can influence public opinion.

      As for Pollution,it shouldn’t be hard to convince people not to kill themselves, however, this is what companies are doing as they refuse to put in environmental measures because it will reduce their profit margins. It doesn’t matter to them that, in the long term, we’ll all be dead, as long as in the short term they’ll have the most money.

      Many of the wars fought in recent years have been over profit. In Iraq, the war was largely funded by oil barons, and it was private firms who handled most of the security after the initial invasion. In Libya, western forces intervened when the civil war caused oil supplies to be cut off. They only sided with the rebels because they thought they were the most likely to win. In Iran, military intervention is being threatened over the blocking of trading routes to transport oil.

      We wouldn’t stand for dictatorship in our governments, so why do we stand for it in the workplace? CEOs get paid massive salaries, and award themselves huge bonuses on top of them, while they pay their workers minimum wage. The bosses don’t do the work, they don’t produce the goods we consume, and they merely own the means of production. As for those who do? The workers don’t have any say in how it is controlled.

      You cannot escape capitalism, it’s everywhere. On every billboard, on every TV program, you have someone telling you to buy something. When this is done by governments in dictatorships we call it propaganda, when companies do it, it’s called advertising. They’re both forms of brainwashing.

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    4. 难怪很早时,Albert Einstein 就已经看到了资本主义邪恶的一面,他写了一篇 “Why Socialism?” ( The Monthly Review, May 1949 ):

      "The profit motive, in conjunction with competition among capitalists…leads to a huge waste of labor, and to that crippling of the social consciousness of individuals which I mentioned before.
      This crippling of individuals I consider the worst evil of capitalism. Our whole educational system suffers from this evil. An exaggerated competitive attitude is inculcated into the student, who is trained to worship acquisitive success as a preparation for his future career.
      I am convinced there is only one way to eliminate these grave evils, namely through the establishment of a socialist economy, accompanied by an educational system which would be oriented toward social goals.…The education of the individual, in addition to promoting his own innate abilities, would attempt to develop in him a sense of responsibility for his fellow-men in place of the glorification of power and success in our present society.”

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    5. Well written! I see your point here. But, there is one thing you should know is equality never existed in this society. Communism vs. Socialism, which one do you prefer and support. Communism, of course; am I right? :-)

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    6. I love your questions, hahaha~~~~I prefer Socialism instead of Communism, 虽然本质上是一样,社会主义是国家的一种民族管理方式,而共产主义是一个党派管这个国家的一种机制,but communism is an extreme form of socialism. Many countries have dominant socialist political parties but very few are truly communist. In fact, most countries - including staunch capitalist bastions like the U.S. and U.K. - have government programs that borrow from socialist principles. "Socialism" is sometimes used interchangeably with "communism" but the two philosophies have some stark differences. Most notably, while communism is a political system, socialism is primarily an economic system that can exist in various forms under a wide range of political systems.

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    7. You suprised me! I thought you for sure support the communism, but I was wrong. Every political system has its pros and cons, but with only one similarity --- GREED! Capitalism is especially the biggest greed in the world. Yet, like you said, you can't escape from capatalism because it's everywhere.

      Now, what political system do you think China adopted? Think about it based on your own point of view. Think carefully! :-) You will find some interesting facts.

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    8. 许多人都会问:中国是共产主义制度还是社会主义制度?就连许多中国人自己都搞不清楚。
      根据中国专家们自己的解释,目前还是社会主义制度,而共产主义是他们的目标和前景。如果真正能够达到国家非常富裕的地步,以致消费品可以实行按需分配,贫富差距不再悬殊,人民共同富裕、共同幸福,那才是真正的共产主义制度。所以没到这个经济水平,是不能实行共产主义制度的。中国认为共产主义是社会主义的最高级阶段,那是一个目标,一种理想。

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    9. 共产主义是一种政治信仰,也是一种社会状态。根据Karl Heinrich Marx的基本思想,共产主义主张消灭生产资料私有制,建立一个没有阶级制度、没有国家和政府,并且进行集体生产的社会。共产主义设想未来的所有阶级社会将最终成为共产主义的无阶级社会,真正要实行起来,需要每一个人具有高度发达的集体主义思想(Collectivism)。

      其实,以前大家对共产主义均产生了错误的理解,包括老毛的时代,以为只要人的需求足够小,物质生产就能成为极大的丰富,食物只求能填饱肚子,栖身之所只求有地方睡觉,劳动成果是大家的,所以共产主义竟然是大锅饭!这种限制个人发展的方式不是共产主义,共产主义应该是每个人高度自由的。

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    10. 番薯邦的污桶极端分子,把反对批评它们的人都套上共产党的帽子,这些包括许多所谓的知识分子,有些还是年轻的,饮过咸水的,可是却活在以前的殖民红毛时代,动不动就骂人家是共产党,共产党究竟是什么东西?这些混帐败类一点都不懂,只懂得去贪污滥权,可恶死了!

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  5. 九寨溝漂亮哦。
    我家人有去過~
    他們今年尾還有去多一次,不知道會有雪景看嗎?

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    1. 一定要去九寨沟看看那些海子,最美的季节是在10月下旬,金秋九寨沟,那时是最漂亮的。年底应该下雪了,冬季的九寨沟,又是另一番景色--------

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  6. 景色很有异国的情调,不错的说。
    那段当年由俄国建在中国国土上的铁路,现在则属于中国所有了吧?

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    1. 1935年,苏联把中苏共同经营的中东铁路,卖给了日本,摆明是欺负中国,不把国民党放在眼里。1945年日本鬼投降,铁路再由中苏共管,直到1952年,还是共产党有本事,把铁路收归中国所有。

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  7. 只是一直被蓝天白云给吸引着!!! =]

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    1. 中国北方的天空真是白云飘飘,碧蓝澄清得很呐!

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